Methodology in Psychology

Quantitative Methodology

The theoretical analysis of the fitting processes for a particular field of study is called methodology.  Methodology is used for different fields of studies.  One such field is psychology.

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Statistical methodology (like statistical significance testing) is used in the field of psychology.  Statistical significance testing consists of tests such as the t-test, z-test, f-test, etc.  These tests perform methodology.  For instance, if one wants to diagnose and compare the death rate and birth rate of two different subject regions, then the t-test methodology is very appropriate in such a case.  If the null hypothesis is arrived at in such an instance, it would mean that there is no statistically significant difference between the birth rates and death rates of the samples of the two subject regions.  If the calculated t statistic goes over the tabulated t statistic , then the assumed null hypothesis of this methodology is prone to be rejected at some particular level of significance.

Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a statistical methodology that is used to diagnose the disparities in the mean values of dependant variables that are linked with the upshot of the controlled independent variables. Before this occurs, however, the influence of the uncontrolled independent variables is taken into account.  In one way ANOVA methodology, there is only one categorical variable or one single factor that is involved in the process.  In case more than one factor or variables are used, then the methodology is known as ANOVA n way methodology.

Like any other methodology or statistical processes, this kind has its own set of assumptions.  First, the nature of the extracted samples of this methodology should be random.  Second, the nature of the variance involved in this methodology should be homogenous and not at all heterogeneous by any degree.

Another type of statistical methodology used in the field of psychology is called partial correlation methodology.  When we want to manage the variables by controlling or adjusting the influence of more than one additional variable, this  measures the relationship between the two target variables.  Behavioral study is a part of psychology where this partial correlation proves to be very useful.  Psychology is a form of social science and the quantitative methodology for it can be carried out by statistical software of social sciences called SPSS.  To understand this in the best manner, we should try and understand the basic terms involved.  The variables that extract the variances from the initial correlated variables are called the control variables, and the correlation with the control variables in this methodology is called the order of correlation.  For example, first order partial correlation methodology has a single control variable.  In addition to quantitative processes, qualitative methods are also used for this methodology.  The two qualitative techniques used are the Delphi Process and the Nominal Group Technique.  In the Delphi process, a number of experts provide independent and expert forecasts with the help of some questionnaires.  The forecasts of the experts are thoroughly amended to reach one united decision consisting of many assumptions in that one whole.  Nominal Group Technique is used to set a priority structure for issues that involve many participants.  It is utilized to judge strengths and weaknesses of institutions, departments, etc.  The best thing about this methodology is that it carries a balanced approach to the entire participant through discussions, where all the participants are allowed to have their say in the presence of a moderator.  Thus the Nominal Group methodology is considered to be more reliable than the Delphi process methodology.