The Chi-Square test of independence is used to determine if there is a significant relationship between two nominal (categorical) variables. The frequency of each category for one nominal variable is compared across the categories of the second nominal variable. The data can be displayed in a contingency table where each row represents a category for one variable and each column represents a category for the other variable. For example, say a researcher wants to examine the relationship between gender (male vs. female) and empathy (high vs. low). The chi-square test of independence can be used to examine this relationship. The null hypothesis for this test is that there is no relationship between gender and empathy. The alternative hypothesis is that there is a relationship between gender and empathy (e.g. there are more high-empathy females than high-empathy males).

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First we have to calculate the expected value of the two nominal variables. We can calculate the expected value of the two nominal variables by using this formula:

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