Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS)

The series of revised scales, Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales, are used to investigate the relation between a learning environment and a student’s motivation, affect, and behavior.  The subscales are separated into a Student scale and a teacher scale. The student scale is specifically evaluates student outlook on goals set by teacher, goals set in the classroom, parents or home life, and personal achievement.  Teacher scales evaluate their outlook on goals set by school, teaching efficiency, and goal-related approaches to teaching.

The test uses a 5-point Likert-style response.

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Midgley, 1998

Validity and Reliability

The Patterns of Adaptive Learning Study has been proved valid by a number of different studies – Partick, L.H. Alderman, Ryan, Edelin , and Midgley (2001).  Based on scores from the PALS at fourth-grade and college levels, the authors were able to calculate a Crobach alpha that provided numerical evidence of reliability and validity.  The PALS when correlated with scales created by Nicolls (1989), measuring task mastery and performance goals, received a rating in the .63-.67 range.

Obtaining the PALS

The Patterns of Adaptive Learning Study

Administration, Analysis and Reporting

Statistics Solutions consists of a team of professional methodologists and statisticians that can assist the student or professional researcher in administering the survey instrument, collecting the data, conducting the analyses and explaining the results.

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Kaplan, A., & Maehr, M. L. (1999). Achievement goals and student well-being. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 24, 330-358.

Midgley, C. (1993). Motivation and middle level schools. In P. Pintrich. & M. L. Maehr, (Eds.). Advances in motivation and achievement, Vol. 8: Motivation in the adolescent years (pp. 219-276). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. View

Midgley, C., & Maehr, M. L. (1999). Using motivational theory to guide school reform.  In A. J. Reynolds, H. J. Walberg, & R. P. Weissberg (Eds.), Promoting positive outcomes in childrens’ and families’ lives (129-159). Washington, D. C.: CWLA Press.

Urdan, T. C. (1997). Examining the relations among early adolescent students goals and friends orientation toward effort and achievement in school.  Contemporary Educational Psychology, 22, 165-19.