# Statistical Help

Quantitative Results

Statistics is a mathematical science that is used for data analysis, interpretation, explanation, and presentation of data.  Statistical help is required in every field, whether it is psychology, medical/nursing, or business.  This article will highlight some key concepts of statistical help in psychology research.  In psychology, a number of researches are conducted to know the attitude or behavior of people, etc.  Whenever a research study is conducted, statistical help is required to analyze the data and interpret the results. Statistical help starts from the research methodology and goes through the presenting of the results.

Research methodology: In psychological research, statistics helps us to determine the methodology for the study.  For example, what should the sample size for that particular research be?  Which technique should we apply to the data, etc.?

Statistical help in research design: In psychological research, two types of research designs are used.  The first type of research design is the true experiment, which is used when a random sample assignment is used.  The second type of research design is used with multiple measures, including quasi-experiment and non experiment research designs.

Selection of variable: Statistical help is used in psychology for the selection of a variable.  Variables are selected on the basis of predetermined theory that is statistically tested.

Sample size: In psychological research, we need statistical help in selecting the sample size.  We know that when the sample size is small, the statistical test will not give accurate results.  If the sample size is too large, then it will take more time and will be costly as well.  For example, if we are using regression methods, then the minimum of 10 observations per independent variable should be present in the research data.  We can use statistical help to determine the adequate sample size.

Data mining: In psychological research, there are two ways of data collection, namely the primary research and the secondary research.  Statistical help gives an idea about which technique we should use for data mining.

Test statistics: In psychological research, we use statistical help do determine the test statistics for that particular data.  There are a number of techniques where statistical help is required for decision making.  For example, t-test, Z-test, and ANOVA, are some parametric tests by which statistical help is provided to us for comparing the mean of two behaviors.  Non- parametric tests like Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and chi-square tests are the tests that can be carried out to answer certain research questions.  This will clearly help us in the field of psychology.  Logistic regression provides statistical help when the dependent regression variable is nominal.  Structural equation modeling technique is usually used in psychological research.  SEM techniques provide statistical help to observe the new variables from the unobserved variables and then to test the relationship between them.

Validity and reliability of statistical result: In any research, conducting analysis is not enough.  After conducting the analysis, we have to test that the result is valid and reliable.  Statistical help gives us the freedom to test the reliability and validity of the result.

Interpretation of result: Statistical help gives us ideas to interpret the results of the research and it gives us ideas as to how to present those results.

Statistical consultant: Statistical consultants have much experience and a strong knowledge of statistics techniques and the theory of psychology.  Ideally, the consultants are people who have the required education to provide statistical help.  Students, researchers, or doctors can hire statistical help. 