APA Editing

Statistical Analysis

Most universities today require students to follow APA format in the reporting of statistics and narrative. Here we will review the correct APA formatting for the most prevalent statistical analyses. Example statistics are reported to show the accurate APA convention.

**Correlations**

• Results of the Pearson correlation indicated that there was a significant positive association between transformational leadership and job satisfaction, (r(112) = .60, p = .012).

• Results of the Spearman correlation indicated that there was a significant positive association between years of experience and job satisfaction, (rs(112) = .53, p < .001).

In both of the above examples, the number following r in parentheses corresponds to the degrees of freedom (df), which is directly tied to the sample size. Then the correlation coefficient is reported, followed by the p-value. Note that when a p-value is less than .001, we do not report p = .000. This is because p-values can never be equal to zero. P-values below .001 are reported as p < .001.

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**Regression**

• Results of the multiple linear regression indicated that there was a collective significant effect between the gender, age, and job satisfaction, (F(9, 394) = 20.82, p < .001, R2 = .32). The individual predictors were examined further and indicated that age (t = -11.98, p = .002) and gender (t = 2.81, p = .005) were significant predictors in the model.

• Results of the binary logistic regression indicated that there was a significant association between age, gender, race, and passing the reading exam (χ2(3) = 69.22, p < .001).

In the above examples, the numbers in parentheses after the test statistics F and χ2 again represent the degrees of freedom. The F statistics will always have two numbers reported for the degrees of freedom following the format: (df regression, df error). For statistics such as R2 and p-values where the number before the decimal point is assumed to be zero, the 0 is omitted.

**T-Tests**

• Results of the independent sample t-tests indicated that there were not significant differences in job satisfaction between males and females, (t(29) = -1.85, p = .074).

• Results of the dependent (paired) sample t-tests indicated that there were significant differences in job satisfaction between pretest and posttest, (t(33) = 37.25, p < .001).

Once again, for t-tests, the number in parentheses following the t is the degrees of freedom.

**Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)**

• Results of the ANOVA indicated that there were not significant differences in job satisfaction between ethnicities (F(2, 125) = 0.16, p = .854, partial η2 = .003).

Following the F notation from the previous regression example, the first number in parentheses refers to the numerator degrees of freedom and the second number corresponds to the denominator (error) degrees of freedom. The partial η2 refers to the effect size of the test.

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