# Methodology

Quantitative Methodology

Methodology refers to the way of doing things in every field. This document will detail the statistical methodology used in the field of medicine and nursing. There is a methodology called testing of hypothesis and this is extensively used in the field of medicine and nursing. The testing of hypothesis methodology is a kind of a confirmatory test that helps the researcher understand whether or not the hypothesis he/she made is true. This consists of some terms which are often used by the researcher while making some of the other statistical inferences about the drug being tested.

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There are many terminologies used in this methodology. The term null hypothesis is used in this and represents the theory that states that there is no significant difference in the two products being tested. Thus, the methodology of null hypothesis in this case will be stated in the following way: there is no statistical significant difference in the new drug and the current drug. On the other hand, the alternative hypothesis states that it is the complementary of null hypothesis. So in the field of medicine and nursing, the methodology of the alternative hypothesis will be stated in the following way: there might be some statistical significance in the new drug and the current drug.

The methodology behind Type I error involves the rejection of the correct sample. In the field of medicine and nursing, according to the Type I error, it will reject the correct sample of the drug. On the other hand, the Type II error involves the acceptance of an incorrect sample. In the field of medicine and nursing, according to the Type II error, it will accept a defective drug assuming it is as an effective drug. According to this methodology, this error is one of the most serious errors in this field.

The methodology behind the test statistic is that it is the value that helps the researcher to decide whether a null hypothesis should be accepted or rejected.

The methodology behind the critical region is that it is the set of values of the test statistic for which the null hypothesis is rejected in tests of hypothesis. The critical region is also called the region of rejection.

The methodology behind the level of significance is that it is the probability that there will be a false rejection of the null hypothesis. Usually, this is chosen by the researcher as 0.05.

The methodology behind the power in tests of hypothesis is that it measures the test’s ability to reject the null hypothesis when the null hypothesis is false. In other words, this helps the researcher in making a correct decision. The maximum value should be one and the minimum should be 0.

The methodology behind the one sided test will be discussed with the help of an example. Suppose the researcher wants to test whether or not there is any statistical difference between the current drug and the new drug. According to this methodology, the alternative hypothesis will be that the current drug is more effective than the new drug or the current drug is less effective than the new drug. On the other hand, according to the methodology behind the two sided test, the alternative hypothesis will be that there is some statistical significant difference in the new drug and the current drug to be tested.