The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) is a method of measuring levels of anxiety in patients who have anxiety-related symptoms. The scale focuses on the most common general anxiety disorders; coping with stress typically causes anxiety.
The SAS test is self-administered, with each response using a 4-point scale, from ‘none of the time” to “most of the time.” There are 20 questions with 15 increasing anxiety level questions and 5 decreasing anxiety questions. There are two formats, self-evaluations and clinical evaluations.
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William W. K. Zung
Validity and Reliability
Sylvia Ramirez and James Lukenbill analyzed the psychometric properties of an adaptation of Zung’s scale for adults with intellectual disabilities (SAS-ID) by Lindsay and Mickie (1988). The SAS-ID was given to 136 adults with intellectual disabilities and to 96 caregivers. The internal consistency reliability coefficient was .80 and the correlation rating with the Fear Survey for Adults with Mental Retardation was 0.40, .44 with the PIMRA Anxiety Subscale, and 0.30 with the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale. Zung used a sample of 225 psychiatric patients and 343 nonpatients, measuring the correlation between self-administered and clinic-administered version of the SAS test — .66 overall and .74 for patients.
Obtaining the scale
purchase a copy of the originating 1971 article from Psychosomatics: The Journal of Consultation and Liaison Psychiatry
If you need assistance with this survey instrument once purchased or obtained…
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William W.K. Zung. A rating instrument for anxiety disorders. Psychosomatics. 1971
Ramirez, S., Lukenbill, J. (2008). Psychometric Properties of the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities (SAS-ID). Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, Vol. 20, No. 6., pp. 573-580.
For more information see the Psychology Wikia’s page on the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale: