Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS)

The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) is a method of measuring levels of anxiety in patients who have anxiety-related symptoms. The scale focuses on the most common general anxiety disorders; coping with stress typically causes anxiety.

The SAS test is self-administered, with each response using a 4-point scale, from ‘none of the time” to “most of the time.” There are 20 questions with 15 increasing anxiety level questions and 5 decreasing anxiety questions. There are two formats, self-evaluations and clinical evaluations.

request a consultation

Discover How We Assist to Edit Your Dissertation Chapters

Aligning theoretical framework, gathering articles, synthesizing gaps, articulating a clear methodology and data plan, and writing about the theoretical and practical implications of your research are part of our comprehensive dissertation editing services.

  • Bring dissertation editing expertise to chapters 1-5 in timely manner.
  • Track all changes, then work with you to bring about scholarly writing.
  • Ongoing support to address committee feedback, reducing revisions.


William W. K. Zung

Validity and Reliability

Sylvia Ramirez and James Lukenbill analyzed the psychometric properties of an adaptation of Zung’s scale for adults with intellectual disabilities (SAS-ID) by Lindsay and Mickie (1988). The SAS-ID was given to 136 adults with intellectual disabilities and to 96 caregivers. The internal consistency reliability coefficient was .80 and the correlation rating with the Fear Survey for Adults with Mental Retardation was 0.40, .44 with the PIMRA Anxiety Subscale, and 0.30 with the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale. Zung used a sample of 225 psychiatric patients and 343 nonpatients, measuring the correlation between self-administered and clinic-administered version of the SAS test — .66 overall and .74 for patients.

Obtaining the scale

Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS)

If you need assistance with this survey instrument once purchased or obtained…

Statistics Solutions consists of a team of professional methodologists and statisticians that can assist the student or professional researcher in administering the survey instrument, collecting the data, conducting the analyses and explaining the results.

For additional information on these services, click here.


William W.K. Zung. A rating instrument for anxiety disorders. Psychosomatics. 1971

Ramirez, S., Lukenbill, J. (2008). Psychometric Properties of the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities (SAS-ID). Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, Vol. 20, No. 6., pp. 573-580.

For more information see the Psychology Wikia’s page on the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale: