Toxic Leadership Scale

The Toxic Leadership Scale was developed in order to better study behaviors that make effective leaders. This scale can be used with both qualitative and quantitative methodologies and is different from other leadership constructs or scales in that it can significantly predict employee outcomes such as job satisfaction and satisfaction with the supervisor.

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Toxic Leadership Scale

Reliability and Validity

This instrument is reliable, each of the five scales has high reliability (Abusive Supervision: ɑ=0.93, Authoritarian Leadership: ɑ=0.89, Narcissism: ɑ=0.88, Self-Promotion: ɑ=0.91, Unpredictable Leadership: ɑ=0.92).

Administration, Analysis and Reporting

Statistics Solutions consists of a team of professional methodologists and statisticians that can assist the student or professional researcher in administering the survey instrument, collecting the data, conducting the analyses and explaining the results.

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Dissertations that have used the Toxic Leadership Scale Instrument     

Leet, Edward. (March 2011). The Impact Toxic or Severe Dysfunctional Leadership has on the Effectiveness of an Organization. (Murdoch University).


Schmidt, Andrew Alexander. (2008). Development and Validation of the Toxic Leadership Scale. (University of Maryland, College Park).