Teacher Efficacy Scale (TES)

The purpose of the Teacher Efficacy Scale is to measure teachers’ attitude towards working with students. There are two versions of the scale – the long form (Gibson and Dembo, 1984) and the short form (Hoy, W.K. & Woolfolk, 1993). These are designed to take a sample from four broad areas that are said to play important roles in teacher effectiveness: alignment, inclusivity, organization, and efficacy.

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Gibson & Dembo, 1984

Hoy & Woolfork, 1993

Validity and Reliability

In order to analyze the instrument, a study was conducted on the TES whereby 20 respondents (20% of original participants) were drawn randomly from the original participants and were given a duplicate survey approximately two to four weeks after the initial survey was completed. Upon completion of the duplicate survey, a response rate of 80% was calculated.

For information on the validity of the Teachers’ Sense of Teacher Efficacy scale, see the study conducted to assess for construct validity (Tschannen-Moran, M., & Woolfolk Hoy, A., 2001).

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Administration, Analysis and Reporting

Statistics Solutions consists of a team of professional methodologists and statisticians that can assist the student or professional researcher in administering the survey instrument, collecting the data, conducting the analyses and explaining the results.

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Dissertations Using the Teacher Efficacy Scale

Below is a list of dissertations that use the TES.  The full version of these dissertations can be found using ProQuest.

Clark, G. E. (1997). The nurse as health educator: A study of reasoned action and self-efficacy. University of Southern California).


Alper, S., Schloss, P. J., Etscheidt, S. K., and Macfarlane, C. A. (1995). Inclusion: are we abandoning or helping students? Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press. View

American Educational Research Association. (2003). Standards and tests: Keeping them aligned. Research Points, 1, 1-4.

Buttram, J. L. & Waters, T. (1997) Improving America’s schools through standards-based education. NASSP Bulletin 81(590). 1-6.

Carnine, D. (2002). Big ideas (plus a little effort) produce big results. Teaching Exceptional Children 34(4), 70-73.

Corbett, J. (2001). Teaching approaches which support inclusive education: a connective pedagogy. British Journal of Special Education 28(2) 55-60.

Diegmueller, K. (1995). Buy the book. Education Week, 15(8), 3-11.

Gibson, S., & Dembo, M. H. (1984). Teacher efficacy: A construct validation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76(4), 569-582. With Permission.

In Hoy, W.K. & Woolfolk, A.E. (1993). Teachers’ sense of efficiency and the organizational health of schools. The Elementary School Journal 93, 356-372.

National Commission on Excellence in Education (Ed.). (1983). A nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform. An open letter to the American people. A report to the nation and the Secretary of Education. Washington, DC: US GPO.

No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107-110, § 1001, 115 Stat. 1425 (2002).

Rudy, D. W. & Conrad, W. H. (2004). Breaking down the data. American School Board Journal 191(2), 39-41.

Stainback, S., Stainback, W., & Jackson, J. (1992). Toward inclusive classrooms. In S. Stainback & W. Stainback (Eds.), Curriculum considerations in inclusive classrooms: Facilitating learning for all students (3-17). Baltimore: Brookes.

Tomlinson, C. A. (2000). Differentiation of instruction in the elementary grades (Report No. EDO-PS-00-7). Champaign, IL: ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED443572)

Tschannen-Moran, M., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 783-805.