Sport Psychology Attitude-Revised (SPA-R)

The Sport Psychology Attitude-Revised (SPA-R) is an instrument used for the assessment of attitudes toward sport psychology in general.  The scale is an adaptation of the Attitudes Toward Seeking Sport Psychology Consultation Questionnaire (ATSSPCQ; Martin, Wrisberg, Beitel, & Lounsbury, 1997) revealing four subscales: stigma tolerance, confidence in sport psychology consultation, personal openness, and cultural preference.

Another version has been developed pertaining more specifically to coaches’ attitudes, the Sport Psychology Attitude-Revised Coaches (SPA-RC).

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Scott B. Martin, Kellmann, M, Lavallee, D and Page, SJ (2002)

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Reliability and Validity

From the Martin et al abstract: “Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated the factorial validity of the four-factor model for the SPA-R for male and female athletes, late adolescent and adult athletes, and athletes from different countries.”

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Martin, SB, Kellmann, M, Lavallee, D and Page, SJ (2002) Development and psychometric evaluation of the sport psychology attitudes – Revised form: A multiple group investigation. Sport Psychologist, 16 3: 272-290. Retrieved August 21 2009 from

Cassidy, T., Potrac, P., & McKenzie, A. (2006). Evaluating and reflecting upon a coach education initiative: The CoDe of rugby. The Sport Psychologist, 20, 145-16

Speed, H. D., Andersen, M. B., & Simons, J. (2005). The selling or the telling of sport psychology; presenting services to coaches. In M. B. Andersen (Ed.), Sport psychology in practice (pp. 1-16). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Zakrajsek, R. A., & Zizzi, S. J. (2007). Factors influencing track and swimming coaches’ intentions to use sport psychology services. Athletic Insight: The Online Journal of Sport Psychology, 9(2). Retrieved September 29, 2007, from

Zizzi, S. J., & Perna, F. M. (2003). Impact of a brief workshop on stages of change profiles in athletes. Athletic Insight: The Online Journal of Sport Psychology, 5(4). Retrieved October, 24, 2004, from