Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES)

The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale is a tool for assessing global self-esteem.  Psychologists and sociologists are common users for this instrument.  Also, the instrument is a vital part of self-esteem measure in social science research and is mainly used adolescents.  RES exists in several languages – English, French, and Norwegian.

Ten statements are included in the self-report measure that pertain to self-worth and self-acceptance.  A four-point scale ranging from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree.” The items were selected as a Guttman scale with 7 “contrived items.”

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Reliability and Validity

The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale presented high ratings in reliability areas; internal consistency was 0.77, minimum Coefficient of Reproducibility was at least 0.90 (M. Rosenberg, 1965, and personal communication, April 22, 1987).  A varied selection of independent studies each using such samples as – parents, men over 60, high school students, and civil servants – showed alpha coefficients ranging from 0.72 to 0.87 (all fairly high).  Test-retest reliability for the 2-week interval was calculated at 0.85, the 7-month interval was calculated at 0.63 (Silber & Tippett, 1965,  Shorkey & Whiteman, 1978).   The RES is closely connected with the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory.

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Rosenburg Self-Esteem Scale

Administration, Analysis and Reporting

Statistics Solutions consists of a team of professional methodologists and statisticians that can assist the student or professional researcher in administering the survey instrument, collecting the data, conducting the analyses and explaining the results.

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Crandal, R. (1973). The measurement of self-esteem and related constructs, Pp. 80-82 in J.P.

Lorenzo-Hernandez, J. & Oullette, S.C. (1998). Ethnic identity, self-esteem, and values in Dominicans, Puerto Ricans, and African Americans. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28, 2007-2024.

McCreary, M.L, Slavin, L.A., & Berry, E.J. (1996). Predicting problem behavior and self-esteem among African American Adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 11, 216-234.

Robinson & P.R. Shaver (Eds), Measures of social psychological attitudes. Revised edition. Ann Arbor: ISR.

Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. View

Simmons, R.G., Rosenberg, F., & Rosenberg, M. (1973). Disturbance in the self-image at adolescence. American Sociological Review, 38, 553-568. This paper includes the six item version referenced by McCreary et al. (1996).

Wylie, R. C. (1974). The self-concept. Revised edition. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. View

Dissertations and Journals

Classen, Sherrilene; Velozo, Craig A.; Mann, William, C. (2007).  The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale as a Measure of Self-Esteem Noninstitutionalized Elderly.  Clinical Gerontologists, Vol. 31, Issue 1, pg.77-93.

Hatcher, Jennifer; Lynne, Hall (2009).  Psychometric Properties of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in African American Single Mothers.  Issues in Mental Health Nursing, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp.70-77.