Racial Identity Attitude Scale (RIAS)

The Racial Identity Attitude Scales, or RIAS, were developed as a self-report method to evaluate the types of attitude in the four phases of Cross’ model of Nigrescence.

The test requires subject response to 50 items using a 5-point Likert Scale and then the scores of each subscale are added together. The four subscales are: Pre-encounter, Encounter, Immersion, and Internalization. There exists the general scale for all races and there are more specific scales towards a certain race.

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Helms & Parham, 1981

Validity and Reliability

0.76 (Pre-encounter), 0.72 (Encounter), 0.69 (Immersion), and 0.80 (Internalization) are estimated the internal consistency ratings by Parham and Helms using a sample of 400 students to average scores and obtain their data.

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Administration, Analysis and Reporting

Statistics Solutions consists of a team of professional methodologists and statisticians that can assist the student or professional researcher in administering the survey instrument, collecting the data, conducting the analyses and explaining the results.

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Carter, R.T. (1991). Racial attitudes and psychological functioning. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 19, 105 – 113.

Cross, W.E. (1995). In search of Blackness and Afrocentricity. In H.W. Harris, H.C. Blue & E.E.H. Griffith (Eds.), Racial and Ethnic Identity: Psychological Development and Creative Expression (pp. 3-72). New York: Routledge.

Parham T.A., & Helms J.E. (1985b). Relation of racial identity attitudes to self actualization and affective states of black students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 32, 431-44

Parham, T. A. (1989). Cycles of psychological nigrescence. The Counseling Psychologist, 17 (2), 187-226

Weeks, C., Ollendick, T. (1997/November) Racial identity development as a predictor of social anxiety in African Americans. Paper presented at the sixth annual Virginia Beach conference.