The Psychological Empowerment Instrument developed by Dr. Gretchen M. Spreitzer is a tool used by many company owners that wish to be successful in today’s global business environments. Spreitzer claims that the elite organizations gain top level managers and enhance creativity in their employees by empowering their employees to take initiative without prodding and to serve the collective interests of the company without any micro-managing.
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Reliability and Validity
The Psychological Empowerment Instrument has been used and validated in over 50 different studies. The context of each study ranges widely between nurses to low wage service workers. The test and retest reliability has been proved to be strong and the validity estimates for the dimensions are typically around .80.
Administration, Analysis and Reporting
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Dissertations that have used the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale
O’Brien, Janice L. May 2010. Structural Empowerment, Psychological Empowerment, and Burnout in Registered Staff nurses Working in Outpatient Dialysis Centers. (The State University of New Jersey).
Vacharakiat, Marayart. 1993. The Relationships of Empowerment, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment among Filipino and American Registered Nurses Working in the U.S.A. (Chulalongkorn University).
Spreitzer, Gretchen M. 2007. Taking Stock: A Review of More than Twenty Years of Research on Empowerment at Work. The Handbook of Organizational Behavior.
Spreitzerm Gretchen M., De Hanesz, Suzanne, and Quinn, Robert E. 1999. Empowered to Lead: The role of Psychological Empowerment in Leadership. Journal of Management Inquiry. 147-164.