Physical Self-Maintenance Scale (PSMS)

The Physical Self-Maintenance Scale was developed to gauge disability in an elderly people currently in a community or institution for use in planning and assessing treatment.  Items in the scale specifically target observable behaviors.

The format the PSMS is first a six item based on the ADL and then eight-items based on the IADL scale.  A 5-point scale for responses ranges from total independence to total dependence.  Ages recommended for the test are 60 and over.  There is a rating version of instrument and a self-administered version.

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M. Powell Lawton and Elaine M. Brody, 1969

Reliability and Validity

The first half of the test (6 items) was investigated with a Guttman scale, giving a reproducibility coefficient of 0.96 and second half (eight items) coefficient of 0.93.  A test-retest reliability of 0.94 was reported for the first section of test and 0.88 for the second half.  In order to test validity, the scores of two nurses whom rated 36 patients were compared producing Pearson correlation of 0.91.  The PSMS has been correlated with several instruments with a sample of elderly people in an institution or a home.  A rating of 0.62 reported for physician’s rating, 0.61 with the IADL scale, 0.38 with Kahn Mental Status Questionnaire, 0.38 with a behavioral rating of social adjustment.

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Administration, Analysis and Reporting

Statistics Solutions consists of a team of professional methodologists and statisticians that can assist the student or professional researcher in administering the survey instrument, collecting the data, conducting the analyses and explaining the results.

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Davis KL, Marin DB, Kane R, et al.  The Caregiver Activity Survey (CAS):  development and validation of a new measure for caregivers of person with Alzheimer’s disease.  Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 997;12:978-988.

Lawton MP, Brody EM.  Assessment of older people: self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living/  Gerontologist 1969;9:179-186.

Lawton MP.  Scales to measure competence in everyday activities.  Psychopharmacol Bull 1988;24:609-614.

Brody EM.  Long-term care of older people:  a practical guida.  New York:  Human Sciences Press, 1997.

Dissertation and Journals

B. Hanna-Pladdy, K.M. Heilman, and A.L. Foundas (2003).  Ecological implications of ideomotor apraxia.  Department of Cognitive Neurology & Alzheimer’s Disease Center.

Chou, Kuei-Ru; LaMontagne, Lynda L.; Hepworth, Joseph T. (1999).  Burden Experienced by Caregivers of Relatives with Dementia in Taiwan.  Nursing Research, volume 48, Issue 4, 206-214.

Liang, Jersey (1986).  Self-Reported Physcial Health Among Aged Adults.  Journal of Gerontology.