Multiracial Challenges and Resilience Scale

The Multiracial Challenges and Resilience Scale (MCRS) was developed using a nationwide internet sample of multiracial, urban adults. The development of this scale and the use of exploratory factor analyses showed four challenge factors and two resilience factors. The challenge factors being: lack of family acceptance, others’ surprise and disbelief regarding racial heritage, challenges with racial identity, and multiracial discrimination. The two resilience factors being appreciation of human differences and multiracial pride.


Nazish M. Salahuddin & Karen M O’Brien

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Multiracial Challenges and Resilience Scale

Reliability and Validity

In the nationwide internet sample of multiracial, urban adults a confirmatory factor analysis using data from a second sample yielded the stability and support for this scale.

Administration, Analysis and Reporting

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Dissertations that have used the Multiracial Challenges and Resilience Scale

Salahuddin, M. Nazish and O’Brien, M. Karen. (2008). Challenges and Resilience in the lives of Multiracial Adults: The Development and Validation of a Measure. (University of Maryland, College Park).

Smith, E. Lauren. (2014). Racial Malleability and Authenticity in Multiracial Well-Being. (University of Miami).