Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R)

Developed to assess symptoms of psychopathy, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) is a diagnostic tool which allows people to rate their psychopathic or antisocial habits. The PCL-R is used for legal, clinical, or research purposes as a indicator of potential risk posed by subject or prisoners.

Two parts are include the Hare PCL-R test: a interview and a review of the subject’s file records and history. During the assessment, the administrator answers a 20-item test measuring psychopathic traits. Completion time is 90 to 120 minutes. The second edition (or revised edition) is the current version of the test.

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Robert D. Hare (2003)

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Reliability and Validity

The Hare Psychopathy Checklist is an established instrument for measuring psychopathy. Hare’s used a sample of 4,981 prison inmates and 1,246 inmates to calculate an alpha coefficient of 0.87 for both. Inter-rater reliability was also very high according to Rogers (2001). For a 5-year time period, the test-retest coefficient was presented at 0.89 (Schroeder, Schroeder, and Hare, 1983). Validity has been supported factor analysis studies (Hare, Harpur, Hakistan, Forth, & Hart, 1990) using samples of prisoner and forensic inpatients.

Administration, Analysis and Reporting

Statistics Solutions consists of a team of professional methodologists and statisticians that can assist the student or professional researcher in administering the survey instrument, collecting the data, conducting the analyses and explaining the results.

For additional information on these services, click here.


Hare, R. D. (2003). Manual for the Revised Psychopathy Checklist (2nd ed.). Toronto, ON, Canada: Multi-Health Systems.

Hare, R. D., & Neumann, C. N. (2006). The PCL-R Assessment of Psychopathy: Development, Structural Properties, and New Directions. In C. Patrick (Ed.), Handbook of Psychopathy (pp. 58-88). New York: Guilford. View

Hare, Robert D. Dr. Robert Hare’s Page for the Study of Psychopaths. January 29, 2002 (cited April 5, 2002.) .

Hare, Robert D. Without Conscience: The Disturbing World of the Psychopaths Among Us. New York, NY: The Guilford Press, 1993. View

Verona E, Patrick CJ, Joiner TE (2001). “Psychopathy, antisocial personality, and suicide risk”. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 110 (3): 462–70

Vitacco, M. J., Neumann, C. S.,& Jackson, R.(2005). “Testing a four-factor model of psychopathy and its association with ethnicity, gender, intelligence, and violence.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 466-76.

Dissertations and Journals

Freedman, M. David. “False prediction of future dangerousness: Error rates and Psychopathy Checklist-Revised.” Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and Law 29, no. 1 (March, 2001): 89-95.

Grann, M., N. Langström, A. Tengström and G. Kullgren. “Psychopathy (PCL-R) predicts violent recidivism among criminal offenders with personality disorders in Sweden.” Law and Human Behavior 23, no. 2 (April, 1999): 205-217.