Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC)

The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) was created to address aspects of resilience and for use in clinical practice. Resilience is considered as the capacity to overcome adversity. The CD-RISC is a 25 item scale that has been studied in a variety of populations such as, members of different ethnic groups and cultures, Alzheimer’s caregivers, adolescents, elders, patients in treatment for PTSD, military medical personnel, medical students, college students, survivors of various traumas, social workers, and even select professional or athletic groups. Although the means scores vary with settings, the psychometric properties of the RISC hold up in almost all studies.

There are two more brief versions of the 25-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, there is a 10-item (CD-RISC 10). The CD-RISC 10 can range in score from 0-40 and is made of questions 1, 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 14, 16, 17, and 19 from the original 25-item scale. This scale was developed by Dr. Laura Cambells-Sills and Dr. Murray Stein at the University of California, San Diego. The second version is the CD-RISC 2, this is based on items 1 and 8 from the original scale and can score from 0-8. This scale was developed by the original authors and made to measure “bounce-back” and adaptability.

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Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale

Reliability and Validity

The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) has been studied and validated within several groups (South African and Chinese adolescents, Korean students, firefighters, nurses, and Indian students). The studies conducted among the Chinese adolescents and Korean students showed that the original five-factor model of the CD-RISC was reproducible, the studies in India, South Africa, Australia and the United States did not find the model to be reproducible. Additionally, in two studies (Cambells-Sills and Stein, 2007) the original 25-item CD-RISC was even shown to be unstable over two identical populations. This lead to the development of the 10-item version of the instrument. The CD-RISC 10 established concrete psychometric factors.

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Dissertations that have used the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC)

Mamerow, Madonna Marie. 2008. Biopsychosocial Outcomes of a Resilience and Diabetes Self-Management Education Intervention in African American Adults with Type 2 Diabetes. (University of Texas at Austin).

Mercer, Carol J. August 2010. College Student Resilience: Selected Effects of Service-Learning. (University of North Texas).

Stephens, Teresa Maggard. May 2012. Increasing Resilience in Adolescent Nursing Students. (University of Tennessee, Knoxville).


Cambells-Sills, Laura & Stein, Murray B. 6 December 2007. Psychometric Analysis and Refinement of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISK): Validation of a 10-Item Measure of Resilience. Journal of Traumatic Stress. Volume 20, Issue 6.

Kansas Journal of Medicine, 2013. A Modified CD-RISC: Including Previously Unaccounted for Resilience Variables.