Classroom Environment Scale (CES)

The Classroom Environment Scale (CES) is intended to assess the environment of a high school or junior high school classroom. Focused on perceptions rather than intelligence, personality or interests, the instrument evaluates the effects of course content, teaching methods, teacher personality, class composition and characteristics of the overall classroom environment. It can also be used when the interest is in a particular individual rather than the classroom as a whole.

By contrasting teacher and student perceptions of the classroom, and actual and preferred learning environments, the instrument is intended to help diagnose problems or identify areas that could benefit from change. This covers academics, programs (including specific intervention programs) and leadership. The CES could also be used purely for research purposes.

It is simple to administer, requiring approximately 15 minutes to complete. There are three forms to the CES (Real, Ideal and Expectations). It contains 90 items, organized into nine subscales in three dimensions.

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Relationship Dimension:

Teacher Support

Personal Growth/Goal Orientation Dimension:

Task Orientation

System Maintenance and Change Dimension:

Order and Organization
Rule Clarity
Teacher Control

For more information, including example items, see the link to the scale page at Mindgarden below.


Rudolf H. Moos & Edison Trickett

Learn more about the CES or to Purchase

You can learn more about the CES or purchase at the website of our preferred partner, Classroom Environment Scale at

About Mind Garden, Inc.

Mind Garden is an independent psychological publishing company of leadership, coping, anxiety and many other assessments and developmental materials.  Since 1994, Mind Garden has sought to preserve and grow important psychological assessments.  Mind Garden has an array of services related to online access and scoring of instruments.

Mind Garden is unique in providing a rapid response to purchase of permission to reproduce their products, via PDF. This is ideal for Ph.D. candidates and researchers who “need it now”, as well as those who may wish to use an instrument online with other instruments or questions.  Paper licenses are also available, providing one copy with permission to reproduce. Mind Garden provides review copies of instruments and scoring in the product manual so that you do not need to order additional components to understand an instrument.

Administration, Analysis and Reporting

Statistics Solutions consists of a team of professional methodologists and statisticians that can assist the student or professional researcher in administering the survey instrument, collecting the data, conducting the analyses and explaining the results.

For additional information on these services, click here.

Dissertations Using the Classroom Environment Scale

Below is a list of published dissertations that use the CES.  The full versions of these dissertations can be found using ProQuest.

Gonda, B. J. (1990). Nursing student perceptions of learning environments in associate and baccalaureate post-conferences. Columbia University Teachers College).

Rowbotham, M. A. (2007). Teacher perspectives and the psychosocial climate of the classroom in a traditional BSN program. University of Missouri – Saint Louis).