Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)

The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) discriminates between anxious and non-anxious groups.  The inventory contains 21 items rated from 0 to 3 by the taker, with a total possible score of 63 points. The items are experiences related to anxiety such as “Fear of worst happening” or “Heart pounding/racing”.  The Five to ten minutes is necessary for completing the test.

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Aaron T. Beck


Low anxiety. That is usually a good thing. However, it is possible that you might be unrealistic in either your assessment which would be denial or that you have learned to “mask” the symptoms commonly associated with anxiety. Too little “anxiety” could indicate that you are detached from yourself, others, or your environment.

Moderate anxiety. Your body is trying to tell you something. Look for patterns as to when and why you experience the symptoms described above. For example, if it occurs prior to public speaking and your job requires a lot of presentations you may want to find ways to calm yourself before speaking or let others do some of the presentations. You may have some conflict issues that need to be resolved. Clearly, it is not “panic” time but you want to find ways to manage the stress you feel.

High Anxiety is a potential cause for concern. Again, look for patterns or times when you tend to feel the symptoms you have circled. Persistent and high anxiety is not a sign of personal weakness or failure. It is, however, something that needs to be proactively treated or there could be significant impacts to you mentally and physically. You may want to consult a physician or counselor if the feelings persist.

Validity and Reliability

A sample of 83 patients whom had finished the Beck Anxiety Inventory after a week showed a average correlation with the items of .60. Internal consistency was strong, over .7, for the scale. The scale was compared with the HARS-R, HRSD-R, and the BDI scales. Correlation rating of .51, .25, and .48 were calculated respectively with the scales listed. The Beck Anxiety Inventory is recommended for clinical and research settings in order to obtain the highest accuracy.

Obtaining the Beck Anxiety Inventory

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Administration, Analysis and Reporting

Statistics Solutions consists of a team of professional methodologists and statisticians that can assist the student or professional researcher in administering the survey instrument, collecting the data, conducting the analyses and explaining the results.

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Alford, B. A., & Beck, A. T. (1998). The integrative power of cognitive therapy. The Guilford Press. View

Beck, A. T. (1979). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. Plume.

Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J. E. & Erbaugh, J. K. (1962). Reliability of psychiatric diagnoses II: A study of consistency of clinical judgments and ratings. American Journal of Psychiatry 119: 351-7.

Biggs, Q. M. (2008). Transportation trauma and psychological morbidity: Anxiety, depression, PTSD and perceived control in a hospitalized sample. (Doctoral dissertation, University of North Texas, 2008).

Newman, C. F., Leahy, R. L., Beck, A. T., Reilly-Harrington, N., & Laszio, G. (2001). Bipolar disorder: A cognitive therapy approach. American Psychological Association.

Shulman, D. I. (1995). Cluster structure of the Beck Anxiety inventory with a nonclinical sample: Dimensions of anxiety. (Thesis, University of Calgary, 1995).

Vohs, C. J. (2008). Anxiety and depression as co-morbid factors in drinking behaviors of undergraduate college students attending an urban private university in the northeastern United States. (Thesis, Johnson and Wales University, 2008).

Wright, J. H., Thase, M. E., Beck, A. T., & Ludgate, J. W. (2003). Cognitive therapy with inpatients: Developing a cognitive milieu. The Guilford Press. View