16 Personality Factors (16PF)

The multi-purposed instrument, 16PF or 16 Personality Factors, is used as a career evaluation tool, for couples counseling and personality assessment.  16 PF is used by psychologists and counselors to provide job occupations that best fit the individuals’ characteristics.  Also, 16PF can identify such problems as anxiety, behavioral adjustment, academic, emotional, and social.

When taking the test, the participant must answer 185 multiple-choice items along with 26 multiple-choice items for the Couples Counseling Report.  Approximately 35-50 minutes is necessary for completion.   The 16PF Fifth Edition is the current version of the test.

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16 Personality Factors (16PF)

Reliability and Validity

Moderate to good reliability rating have been reported for the 16PF.  Based on a sample of 10,261 individuals, Internal consistency reliabilities are on average 0.76 for the primary scales and a range of 0.68 to 0.87 for all 16 scales.    The test-reliabilities over a 2 week period showed scores of 0.69-0.87 for all scales and a 2-month interval showed scores ranging from 0.56-0.79.   This data can be found and supported in the 16PF Fifth Edition Technical Manual by Conn & Rieke, 1994.

Studies conducted have supported construct validity (Chernysheno, Stark, & Chan, 2001; Conn &Rieke, 1994; Catell & Krug, 1986; Gerbing & Tuley, 1991; Hofer, Horn, & Eber, 1997).  Translation into several languages – Italian, French, Japanese, German – are available for the 16PF.  The test’s applied validity to counseling, career development, personality assessment and clinical problems has been supported (Kelly, 1999; Krug & Johns, 1990; Schuerger & Watterson, 1998).  The 16PF is an established instrument receiving thousands of publications and qualified recommendations.

Administration, Analysis and Reporting

Statistics Solutions consists of a team of professional methodologists and statisticians that can assist the student or professional researcher in administering the survey instrument, collecting the data, conducting the analyses and explaining the results.

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Dissertations Using the 16 Personality Factors

Below is a list of dissertations that use the 16PF.  The full version of these dissertations can be found using ProQuest.

Artale, L. J. (2003). Attitudes of community college students toward people with disabilities. University of Florida).

Eastburg, M. C. (1991). Social support, personality, and burnout in nurses. Fuller Theological Seminary, School of Psychology).


Cattell, R. B. (1946). The description and measurement of personality. New York: Harcourt, Brace, & World. View

Cattell, R. B. (1957). Personality and motivation structure and measurement. New York: World Book.

Conn, S.R., & Rieke, M.L. (1994a). The 16PF Fifth Edition technical manual.

Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, Inc.

Krug, S.E., & Johns, E.F. (1990).  The 16PF.  In C.E. Watkins, Jr. & V.L. Campbell (Eds.), Testing in counseling practice.  Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Russell, M.T., & Karol, D. (2002). 16PF Fifth Edition administrator’s manual.

Schuerger, J.M., 7 Watterson, D.G. (1998).  Occupational Interpretation of the 16 personality factor questionnaire.  Cleveland, OH:  Watterson & Associates.


Cousineau, Amy E.; Hall, M. Elizabeth Lewis; Rosik, Christopher H.;  Hall, Todd W. (2007).  The 16PF and marital satisfaction inventory as predictors of missionary job success.  Journal of Psychology and Theology.

Bastick, Tony (1999).  Personality factors of empathy.  Annual meeting of the Western Psychological Association.