Collective Efficacy Scale

The Collective Efficacy Scale is a 10-item Likert-type scale developed to measure “collective efficacy, defined as social cohesion among neighbors combined with their willingness to intervene on behalf of the common good”1.  Collective efficacy was hypothesized and demonstrated to be a reliably measurable construct in the originating study.


Robert J. Sampson, Stephen W. Raudenbush, Felton Earls

Reliability and Validity

“The reliability with which neighborhoods can be distinguished on collective efficacy ranges between 0.80 for  neighborhoods with a sample size of 20 raters to 0.91 for neighborhoods with a sample size of 50 raters.”1

Where to Obtain Permission to Use Collective Efficacy Scale

To obtain permission to use this scale you must contact one of the authors directly,  You can find their contact information below.

Administration, Analysis and Reporting

Statistics Solutions consists of a team of professional methodologists and statisticians that can assist the student or professional researcher in administering the survey instrument, collecting the data, conducting the analyses and explaining the results.

For additional information on these services, click here.


R. J. Sampson, S. W. Raudenbush, F. Earls, “Neighborhoods and Violent Crime: A Multilevel Study of Collective Efficacy”, Science Magazine, Vol. 277, pp. 918-924, 15 August 1997.  Retrieved from on 01-28-2010

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