Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES)

The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale is a tool for assessing global self-esteem.  Psychologists and sociologists are common users for this instrument.  Also, the instrument is a vital part of self-esteem measure in social science research and is mainly used adolescents.  RES exists in several languages – English, French, and Norwegian.

Ten statements are included in the self-report measure that pertain to self-worth and self-acceptance.  A four-point scale ranging from “strongly agree” to "strongly disagree.” The items were selected as a Guttman scale with 7 “contrived items.”


Morris Rosenberg

Reliability and Validity

The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale presented high ratings in reliability areas; internal consistency was 0.77, minimum Coefficient of Reproducibility was at least 0.90 (M. Rosenberg, 1965, and personal communication, April 22, 1987).  A varied selection of independent studies each using such samples as – parents, men over 60, high school students, and civil servants – showed alpha coefficients ranging from 0.72 to 0.87 (all fairly high).  Test-retest reliability for the 2-week interval was calculated at 0.85, the 7-month interval was calculated at 0.63 (Silber & Tippett, 1965,  Shorkey & Whiteman, 1978).   The RES is closely connected with the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory.

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Rosenburg Self-Esteem Scale

Administration, Analysis and Reporting

Statistics Solutions consists of a team of professional methodologists and statisticians that can assist the student or professional researcher in administering the survey instrument, collecting the data, conducting the analyses and explaining the results.

For additional information on these services, click here.


Crandal, R. (1973). The measurement of self-esteem and related constructs, Pp. 80-82 in J.P.

Lorenzo-Hernandez, J. & Oullette, S.C. (1998). Ethnic identity, self-esteem, and values in Dominicans, Puerto Ricans, and African Americans. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28, 2007-2024.

McCreary, M.L, Slavin, L.A., & Berry, E.J. (1996). Predicting problem behavior and self-esteem among African American Adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 11, 216-234.

Robinson & P.R. Shaver (Eds), Measures of social psychological attitudes. Revised edition. Ann Arbor: ISR.

Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. View

Simmons, R.G., Rosenberg, F., & Rosenberg, M. (1973). Disturbance in the self-image at adolescence. American Sociological Review, 38, 553-568. This paper includes the six item version referenced by McCreary et al. (1996).

Wylie, R. C. (1974). The self-concept. Revised edition. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. View

Dissertations and Journals

Classen, Sherrilene; Velozo, Craig A.; Mann, William, C. (2007).  The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale as a Measure of Self-Esteem Noninstitutionalized Elderly.  Clinical Gerontologists, Vol. 31, Issue 1, pg.77-93.

Hatcher, Jennifer; Lynne, Hall (2009).  Psychometric Properties of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in African American Single Mothers.  Issues in Mental Health Nursing, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp.70-77.

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