Common Statistical Formulas

Statistical formulas are used to calculate values related to statistical concepts or analyses.  Here we will discuss common formulas and what they stand for.

Population Mean

The term population mean, which is the average score of the population on a given variable, is represented by:

μ = ( Σ Xi ) / N

The symbol ‘μ’ represents the population mean.  The symbol ‘Σ Xi’ represents the sum of all scores present in the population (say, in this case) X1 X2 X3 and so on.  The symbol ‘N’ represents the total number of individuals or cases in the population.

Population Standard Deviation

The population standard deviation is a measure of the spread (variability) of the scores on a given variable and is represented by:

σ = sqrt[ Σ ( Xi – μ )2 / N ]

The symbol ‘σ’ represents the population standard deviation.  The term ‘sqrt’ used in this statistical formula denotes square root.  The term ‘Σ ( Xi – μ )2’ used in the statistical formula represents the sum of the squared deviations of the scores from their population mean.

Population Variance

The population variance is the square of the population standard deviation and is represented by:

σ2 = Σ ( Xi – μ )2 / N

The symbol ‘σ2’ represents the population variance.

Sample Mean

The sample mean is the average score of a sample on a given variable and is represented by:

x_bar = ( Σ xi ) / n

The term “x_bar” represents the sample mean.  The symbol ‘Σ xi’ used in this formula represents the represents the sum of all scores present in the sample (say, in this case) x1 x2 x3 and so on.  The symbol ‘n,’ represents the total number of individuals or observations in the sample.

Sample Standard Deviation

The statistic called sample standard deviation, is a measure of the spread (variability) of the scores in the sample on a given variable and is represented by:

s = sqrt [ Σ ( xi – x_bar )2 / ( n – 1 ) ]

The term ‘Σ ( xi – x_bar )2’ represents the sum of the squared deviations of the scores from the sample mean.

Sample Variance

The sample variance is the square of the sample standard deviation and is represented by:

s2 = Σ ( xi – x_bar )2 / ( n – 1 )

The symbol ‘s2’ represents the sample variance.

Pooled Sample Standard Deviation

The pooled sample standard deviation is a weighted estimate of spread (variability) across multiple samples.  It is represented by:

sp = sqrt [ (n1 – 1) * s12 + (n2 – 1) * s22 ] / (n1 + n2 – 2) ]

The term ‘sp’ represents the pooled sample standard deviation.  The term ‘n1’ represents the size of the first sample, and the term ‘n2’ represents the size of the second sample that is being pooled with the first sample.  The term ‘s12’ represents the variance of the first sample, and ‘s22’ represents the variance of the second sample.

Intellectus allows you to conduct and interpret your analysis in minutes. Click the link below to create a free account, and get started analyzing your data now!

Statistics Solutions can assist with your quantitative analysis by assisting you to develop your methodology and results chapters. The services that we offer include:

Data Analysis Plan

Edit your research questions and null/alternative hypotheses

Write your data analysis plan; specify specific statistics to address the research questions, the assumptions of the statistics, and justify why they are the appropriate statistics; provide references

Justify your sample size/power analysis, provide references

Explain your data analysis plan to you so you are comfortable and confident

Two hours of additional support with your statistician

Quantitative Results Section (Descriptive Statistics, Bivariate and Multivariate Analyses, Structural Equation Modeling, Path analysis, HLM, Cluster Analysis)

Clean and code dataset

Conduct descriptive statistics (i.e., mean, standard deviation, frequency and percent, as appropriate)

Conduct analyses to examine each of your research questions

Write-up results

Provide APA 6th edition tables and figures

Explain chapter 4 findings

Ongoing support for entire results chapter statistics

Please call 727-442-4290 to request a quote based on the specifics of your research, schedule using the calendar on t his page, or email [email protected]