Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFCS)

The Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFCS) contains 12 statements relating to the consideration of immediate and delayed consequences of behaviors.   Participants indicate how characteristic the 12 statements are of themselves on a 5-point Likert scale from 1 “extremely uncharacteristic” to 5 “extremely characteristic.”  For example, participants rate the statement “I consider how things might be in the future, and try to influence those things with my day to day behavior.”


Alan Strathman

Reliability and Validity

Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) on four samples of University students ranged from α = .80 to α = .86.  Test-retest reliability for two of the study samples r = .76, p < .001 and r = .72, p < .001. Concurrent validity: Ray and Najman’s Deferment of Gratification Scale (r = .47, p < .001), and the Stanford Time Perspective Inventory (r = .43, p < .001).

Obtaining the CFCS

To obtain permission to use this instrument in your dissertation research, you must request permission directly from the author, Alan Strathman, by emailing [email protected].

Administration, Analysis and Reporting

Statistics Solutions consists of a team of professional methodologists and statisticians that can assist the student or professional researcher in administering the survey instrument, collecting the data, conducting the analyses and explaining the results.

For additional information on these services, click here.


Joireman, J., Strathman, A., & Balliet, D. (2006). Considering future consequences: An integrative model. In L. Sanna & E. Chang (Eds.), Judgments over time: The interplay of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Oxford: Oxford University Press. View

Strathman, A., & Joireman, J. (Eds.) (2005). Understanding behavior in the context of time: Theory, research, and application. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. View

Joireman, J., Anderson, J., & Strathman, A. (2003). The aggression paradox: Understanding links among aggression, sensation seeking, and the consideration of future consequences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 1287-1302.

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