Zung’s model for depression, the Zung Self-Rating Depression scale, measures psychological and somatic symptoms linked to depression. In addition, the scale can be used as a screening tool, monitor for changes, and clinical research purposes.
The questionnaire includes 20-items testing four common characteristic of depression – the pervasive effect, the physiological equivalents, other disturbances, and psycho-motor activities. Respondents are given a 4-point scale to react to positive or negative statements. Approximately 10 minutes is required to complete the test.
Dr. William W.K. Zung
Reliability and Validity
The Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale has fairly good reliability. Zung has reported a split-half reliability of 0.73. An alpha coefficient of 0.68 was obtained by DeForge and Sobal (1988), however 0.82 was reported by DeJonghe & Baneke (1989) and Leung, Lee, Lue, & Tang (1989). The ZSDS when correlated with the physician’s global rating received a correlation of 0.69. In addition, ZSDS has a strong correlation with the Hamiliton Rating Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory in assessing self-criticism, hysteria, hypochondriasis, and paranoia.
Obtaining the ZSDS
Administration, Analysis and Reporting
Statistics Solutions consists of a team of professional methodologists and statisticians that can assist the student or professional researcher in administering the survey instrument, collecting the data, conducting the analyses and explaining the results.
For additional information on these services, click here.
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Falcon S, Pinglo F, Hurtado de Mendoza L: Autoassessment Zung Scale (anxiety and depression) use in hospitalized patients for cancer treatment. Proc Am Soc Clin Onc Los Angeles, 199814.
Zung, W. W. (1972). The Depression Status Inventory: An adjunct to the Self-Rating Depression Scale: Journal of Clinical Psychology Vol 28(4) Oct 1972, 539-543
Zung, W. W., & Zung, E. M. (1986). Use of the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale in the elderly: Clinical Gerontologist Vol 5(1-2) Jun 1986, 137-148.
Dissertation and Journals
Thurber, Steven, Snow, Mark, Honts, Charles R. (2002). The Zung Self-Rating Depression scale. Boise State University.
T. Kitamura, H. Hirano, Z. Chen, and M. Hirata (2009). Factor structure of the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale in first-year university students in Japan. Psychiatry Research, Volume 128, Issue 3, 281-287
Gregor, J. Robert. (1994) The Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale as a Potential Screening Tool for Use with Eskimos. State University of New York.
Smith, B. Timothy, Rosenstein, Ilene, Granaas, M. Michae (2001). Intake Screening with the self-Rating Depression Scale in a University Counseling Center. Journal of College Counseling.