Infant Care Survey (ICS)

The purpose for the Infant Care Survey (ICS) is to evaluate a mother’s confidence in caring for infants under a year old. The structure for the test is built around the Social learning theory. A common use for the instrument is to identify high-risk groups for evading medical care. Such areas as infant health, diet, and safety, and the skills or knowledge in these areas are targeted by the ICS. Participants are required to respond to using a scale ranging from A (very little confidence) to E (quite a lot of confidence).


Robin D. Froman & Steven V. Owen (1989)

Reliability and Validity

The psychometric properties for the Infant Care Survey were supported by Froman & Owen (1989) using an initial group of 48 statements that represent usual and important infant care behaviors. Data was collected from hospitals, home visits, clinical nursing sites, and diverse college classrooms. Alpha internal consistency scores were calculated for the total score (0.96), subgroups of knowledge and skill items (0.92 and 0.91) (Ruchala & James, 1997). The successful behaviors commonly preformed – holding a baby, changing diapers, support construct validity – showed the highest means while the difficult to perform showed the lowest; therefore, proving construct validity.

Administration, Analysis and Reporting

Statistics Solutions consists of a team of professional methodologists and statisticians that can assist the student or professional researcher in administering the survey instrument, collecting the data, conducting the analyses and explaining the results.

For additional information on these services, click here.

Dissertations Using the Infant Care Survey

Below is a list of published dissertations that use the ICS.  The full versions of these dissertations can be found on ProQuest.

Curriculum development in higher education: Health education and new mothers self-efficacy regarding infant care. (1994). Widener University).

Ruchala, P. L. (1991). The postpartum experience: A study of maternal concerns, confidence, and support. Rush University, College of Nursing).

Fleming, Lynne (1994). Curriculum Development in Higher Education: Health Education and New Mothers’ Self-Efficacy regarding infant care. The Center for Education, Widener University: Chester, PA.


Beck, C. T. (2002). Mothering multiples: a meta-synthesis of qualitative research. MCN: The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing 27(4), 214-221.

Froman, R. D. & Owen, S. V. (1989). Infant care self-efficacy. Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice, 3(3), 199-211.

Froman, R. D. & Owen, S. V. (1990). Mothers’ and Nurses” Perceptions of infant care skills. Research in Nursing & Health (13), 247-253.

Lutes, L. & Altimier, L. (2001). Co-bedding multiples. Newborn and infant nursing reviews 1(4) [on-line] available:

Sumner, G., & Spietz, A. (1996). NCAST: Caregiver/Parent-Child interaction teaching manual. Seattle: NCAST Publications, University of Washington, School of Nursing. View


Hudson DB, Elek SM, Fleck CM (2001). First-time mothers’ and fathers’ to parenthood: infanvt care self-efficacy, parenting satisfaction, and infant sex. Issues Compr Peidatr Nurs., 24(1):31-43.

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